Here is a short list of common failure modes encountered in engineering structures.
1) Fracture - Fracture refers to the formation of cracks or the growth of existing cracks in a structure.
2) Yielding - If a body's stresses are higher than the materials yield strength, the body will fail due to yielding if the integrity or function of the part is compromised.
3) Buckling - The sudden loss of stability or stiffness under an applied load.
4) Fatigue - Structures which experience variable loading may fail after a number of loading cycles.
5) Creep - Bodies under a sustained load will deform over time. Empirical creep data is required to compensate for the effect.
6) Lack of Stiffness - Bodies must be stiff enough to support loads and maintain required tolerances.